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It’s Time to Close the Communication Gaps in Education
Since the 1970s, an important line of research has shown that children and youth from low-income families can succeed at high academic levels in public schools if they are given the right support. The research on two of those supports is now so compelling that it would be difficult to find anyone who would dispute them: high-quality early childhood education and high-quality school leadership are powerful levers for improving student learning. And they are even more powerful if they are implemented together, instead of separately.
Nobel Prize-winning economist James Heckman of the University of Chicago argues that if we want to spend our educational dollars more effectively, early childhood programs are the place to spend it. However, we also know that placing children in early childhood programs will not by itself ensure learning: it’s the quality of the learning experience that matters most.
If we want strong early childhood education programs, we have to prepare leaders for elementary schools and early childhood programs who understand the complexities of Organizing Schools for Improvement, the title of the influential book authored by Tony Bryk’s team at the University of Chicago (Bryk is now President of Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching). It is no secret that high quality school leaders hire and retain the right teachers, develop their ability to succeed with a school’s particular population, and work with families to support student success. This is as true for early childhood classrooms as it is for high school classrooms.
Nationwide, however, two of the most important ships in the educational fleet are manned by crews that don’t often communicate with each other. Early childhood education and leadership faculty teach in separate university departments, they have separate journals and professional organizations, and it is rare for a leadership conference to address issues in early childhood education or vice versa. Most school principals have little or no early childhood education background, and just as little leadership preparation for early childhood programs.
Fortunately, notable exceptions point the way to change: the University of Washington and University of Connecticut are invested in ambitious programs in P-3 Leadership development. And, in Illinois, the Ounce of Prevention Fund, Erikson Institute, Illinois State University, and the McCormick Center for Early Childhood Education Leadership have been pioneering innovative leadership practices for improving teacher learning in pre-school settings.
In fact, the lessons to be learned from Chicago Public Schools (CPS) are important. In the third largest district in the nation, systemic change began with principal preparation partnerships that prepared all candidates to lead pre-K through12 classrooms. The CPS story includes state legislation to support aggressive district policies in preparing, selecting, and supporting new principals. After more than a decade, the two largest principal preparation providers—New Leaders and University of Illinois Chicago, respectively—have produced more than 300 new principals for CPS; and Illinois became the first state to replace its general school administrator certificate with a P-12 Principal Endorsement.
The results have been impressive. Since the advent of No Child Left Behind in 2001, CPS has posted the highest elementary school learning gains among the 55 largest school districts in Illinois in reading and mathematics. Moreover, actual achievement in Chicago is now about the same as or higher than nearly 50% of all school districts statewide, up from just 3% of districts in 2001. That is according to a study led by Paul Zavitkovsky of the University of Illinois Chicago Center for Urban Education Leadership (http://urbanedleadership.org/what-we-do/research/upstate-downstate-report/).
What’s more, third-grade reading scores in Chicago now eclipse those for the rest of the state for each of the three major demographic groups. This is particularly important because third-grade reading scores are an accurate predicator of eighth-grade reading levels—which in turn correlate highly with high school graduation.
These examples remind us that other districts and states have considerable power to work with higher education to produce school leaders who significantly improve student learning in schools as a rule, rather than as an exception to the rule. Preparing K-12 principals who can lead early childhood programs is a cost-effective place to start.
Steve Tozer is Professor and University Scholar in the Department of Educational Policy Studies at the University of Illinois-Chicago. He is founding Director of the Center for Urban Education Leadership and Coordinator of the UIC Ed.D. Program in Urban Education, a partnership with Chicago Public Schools that has received awards for exemplary practice from leading academic and policy organizations such as the University Council on Education Administration, the Council of the Great City Schools, and the Bush Institute’s School Leadership Initiative. The UIC program has twice been featured on the cover of Education Week, once on a national PBS broadcast, and in numerous other national publications.
Steve received degrees from Dartmouth College, Loyola University of Chicago, and the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). After teaching and directing in a full-day, year-round kindergarten at Hull House and directing an early childhood center for Christopher House, both in Uptown Chicago, he later headed an alternative school for adjudicated Cook County youth. After Steve joined the Policy Studies faculty at UIUC, he published a textbook for teachers that has been continuously in print since 1993. He later served as head of Curriculum and Instruction at UIUC; Chair of Policy Studies at UIC; and President of the American Educational Studies Association. He was named a University Faculty Fellow at UIC and received the Association of Teacher Education Robert J. Stevenson Award for Outstanding Leadership and Dedication to the Education Profession.
Steve has led several educational policy initiatives. In 1999-2001 he chaired the Governor’s Council on Educator Quality in Illinois that founded the Illinois Education Research Council. In 2008 he chaired a joint State Board of Education and Board of Higher Education Legislative Task Force that changed principal licensure laws in Illinois In 2014-15 he co-chaired the Illinois School Leader Advisory Council, appointed by the State Board of Education and funded by Wallace Foundation. Steve is called upon regularly to address national audiences convened by the National Governor’s Association, National Council for State Legislatures, the Education Trust, Educational Development Center, National PreK-3 Institute, Wallace Foundation, and others.
Author or co-author of over 45 journal articles and book chapters, Steve is Associate Editor of Educational Theory; lead author of School and Society, Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, 7th Edition (McGraw-Hill, 2012); and lead editor of The Handbook of Research in Social Foundations of Education (Routledge, 2011).
Interventions Only Work When School Districts Support Strong Leadership
The George W. Bush Institute hosted a panel discussion focused on college and career readiness, early childhood, and the importance of school leaders in driving better results for all children.
The Need for a Strong Principal Bench
A recent story of a principal who left the high school he successfully turned around in Newark, New Jersey illustrates how vulnerable turnaround reforms can be when the leader who implemented those reforms moves on.